The issuer must pay holders of the bonds a full six months’ interest at each interest date. Thus, investors purchasing bonds after the bonds begin to accrue interest must pay the seller for the unearned interest accrued since the preceding interest date. The bondholders are reimbursed for this accrued interest when they receive their https://accounting-services.net/how-to-figure-out-total-bond-interest-expense/ first six months’ interest check. Issuers must set the contract rate before the bonds are actually sold to allow time for such activities as printing the bonds. Assume, for instance, that the contract rate for a bond issue is set at 12%. If the market rate is equal to the contract rate, the bonds will sell at their face value.

### What is the interest expense of a bond?

Bond interest expense is the aggregate interest expense incurred during a reporting period for an organization's bonds payable. This expense includes the amortization of any premium or discount on issued bonds for the reporting period, which is based on the price at which they were sold to investors.

Harold Averkamp (CPA, MBA) has worked as a university accounting instructor, accountant, and consultant for more than 25 years. Julia Kagan is a financial/consumer journalist and former senior editor, personal finance, of Investopedia. Interest is a reduction to net income on the income statement, and is tax-deductible for income tax purposes. We Fools may not all hold the same opinions, but we all believe that considering a diverse range of insights makes us better investors.

## Comparison of Amortization Methods

Heavily indebted companies may have a hard time serving their debt loads during economic downturns. At such times, investors and analysts pay particularly close attention to solvency ratios such as debt to equity and interest coverage. First, calculate the discount on the bond by taking the difference between the future value of the bond (\$10,000,000) and the present value of the bond (unknown). Plugging in our known figures into a financial calculator or, alternatively, Excel’s present value function, we’ll solve for present value. Bonds sold at a premiumWhereas the discount on a bond is recorded as additional interest expense, the premium on a bond is recorded as a reduction in interest expense.

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• Firms state this rate in the bond indenture, print it on the face of each bond, and use it to determine the amount of cash paid each interest period.
• Interest expense calculationsEvery six months, XYZ Corp. will naturally have to pay its bondholders cash coupons of \$5,000.
• However, the amount of interest expense reported in the income statement will differ from this value depending on whether the bond is issued at par, discount or premium.
• Under the straight-line method the interest expense remains at a constant amount even though the book value of the bond is increasing.
• Thus, if the market rate is 10% and the contract rate is 12%, the bonds will sell at a premium as the result of investors bidding up their price.

When a company issues bonds, it receives funds from investors in exchange for periodic interest payments and the repayment of the bond’s face value at maturity. The bond interest expense is recorded on the company’s income statement as a financing cost, reducing the company’s net income. In our example, there is no accrued interest at the issue date of the bonds and at the end of each accounting year because the bonds pay interest on June 30 and December 31.

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Under US GAAP both straight line and effective interest method are allowed but the effective interest method is preferred. Interest, therefore, is typically the last item before taxes are deducted to arrive at net income. A great broker can make it easy for you to buy bonds, as well as stocks.

• Interest expense will be on the higher side during periods of rampant inflation since most companies will have incurred debt that carries a higher interest rate.
• The contract rate of interest is also called the stated, coupon, or nominal rate is the rate used to pay interest.
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• For instance, say a company issues a five-year bond with a face value of \$1,000 and a 2% interest rate.
• The only difference is that the interest expense will be lower than the coupon payment by the amount of amortization.

For example, for a bond with a face value of \$1,000 paying a 5% coupon rate, the coupon per year will be \$50. Once a bond has been issued and bonds payable liability has been created, the company will pay periodic interest payments to the bond holders for the life of the bond. Bonds issued at face value between interest dates Companies do not always issue bonds on the date they start to bear interest. Regardless of when the bonds are physically issued, interest starts to accrue from the most recent interest date. Firms report bonds to be selling at a stated price “plus accrued interest”.

## Where does the Expense Appear on the Income Statement?

When a firm leases an asset from another company, the lease balance generates an interest expense that appears on the income statement. Let’s consider a hypothetical example of a company called “Healthy Foods Inc.” that issues bonds to raise funds for a new production facility. Thus, interest expense is recorded as \$4,324.44 for the first period, while \$675.56 is recorded as premium amortization.

• The amount of this discount scheduled to be amortized in the current period is \$20,000.
• While mortgage interest is tax-deductible in the United States, it is not tax-deductible in Canada.
• This balance is multiplied by the debt’s interest rate to find the expense.
• As shown above, if the market rate is lower than the contract rate, the bonds will sell for more than their face value.
• The following examples illustrate the accounting for bonds issued at face value on an interest date and issued at face value between interest dates.

Below is a comparison of the amount of interest expense reported under the effective interest rate method and the straight-line method. Note that under the effective interest rate method the interest expense for each year is increasing as the book value of the bond increases. Under the straight-line method the interest expense remains at a constant amount even though the book value of the bond is increasing. The accounting profession prefers the effective interest rate method, but allows the straight-line method when the amount of bond discount is not significant. Issuers usually quote bond prices as percentages of face value—100 means 100% of face value, 97 means a discounted price of  97%of face value, and 103 means a premium price of 103% of face value.

The discount on the bonds of \$7,360.09 is an additional cost of financing. GAAP requires that the discount is amortized into interest expense over time. The following table summarizes the effect of the change in the market interest rate on an existing \$100,000 bond with a stated interest rate of 9% and maturing in 5 years. While mortgage interest is tax-deductible in the United States, it is not tax-deductible in Canada. The loan’s purpose is also critical in determining the tax-deductibility of interest expense.

For example, if a loan is used for bona fide investment purposes, most jurisdictions would allow the interest expense for this loan to be deducted from taxes. Under US GAAP, cash interest paid is reported as an operating cash flow. Under IFRS, cash interest paid can be reported as operating or financing cash flow. Get stock recommendations, portfolio guidance, and more from The Motley Fool’s premium services. Calculating interest expense on a payable bond should be relatively straightforward, but then the accountants got involved.

## Amortizing Bond Discount with the Effective Interest Rate Method

Interest expense is a non-operating expense shown on the income statement. It represents interest payable on any borrowings—bonds, loans, convertible debt or lines of credit. It is essentially calculated as the interest rate times the outstanding principal amount of the debt. Interest expense on the income statement represents interest accrued during the period covered by the financial statements, and not the amount of interest paid over that period. While interest expense is tax-deductible for companies, in an individual’s case, it depends on their jurisdiction and also on the loan’s purpose.

For example, one hundred \$1,000 face value bonds issued at 103 have a price of \$103,000 (100 bonds x \$1,000 each x 103%). Regardless of the issue price, at maturity the issuer of the bonds must pay the investor(s) the face value (or principal amount) of the bonds. As shown above, if the market rate is lower than the contract rate, the bonds will sell for more than their face value. Thus, if the market rate is 10% and the contract rate is 12%, the bonds will sell at a premium as the result of investors bidding up their price.