With a long-lasting career in editing, writing, and translation, he thinks of himself as a word-lover. As a productivity author and researcher, Stefan has crafted countless articles on improving stages of group and team development habits and soft skills. A life enthusiast to his bones, he has spent many years in the quest for the perfect optimization software and time management strategies — and has found them.

stages of group and team development

Some may falter at the earlier stages, due to the inability to properly address differences between team members or address problems as they emerge. To provide a better summary of the behaviors, feelings, group needs, and leadership needs in the Norming Stage, check out the table below. On another occasion, Daniel invents the team’s anthem — which reflects everyone’s tendency to arrive to meetings 2 minutes after the agreed time and then apologize about it too much. To make the story more concrete, here’s a brief overview of the behaviors, feelings, group needs, and leadership needs in the Storming Stage.


During the conclusion of the project, you can discuss the whole project journey with your team members. Seek their opinions on what went well and what didn’t go well to identify areas of improvement. When the team is at the adjourning stage, it is usually when the project is soon to be completed. The conclusion of a project can be very discouraging for a high-performing team. Hence, for a team or a group to be successful and as high performing as possible it is necessary that all these five stages of group formation should be utilized to their fullest potential. These five stages of group development are the widely used model of group formation used by most private, public, and business enterprises.

Team performance increases during this stage as members learn to cooperate and begin to focus on team goals. However, the harmony is precarious, and if disagreements re-emerge the team can slide back into storming. In this stage, team members are in the process of learning how to work together. As team members begin collaborating, conflicts may arise, whether that’s from clashing personalities or opinions on how a project should progress. Without a clear understanding of what role each individual plays on the team, relationships can get tumultuous as team members struggle to find a role that’s right for them.

Examples of Professional Goals to Set In 2023

Group development also provides the team with a chance to learn about the rest of the team’s talents which contributes to the team dynamics. In 1965, Dr. Bruce Tuckman published the Tuckman model, in which he detailed the stages of team development. Whether you are a manager or are simply one of the team, once you understand these stages of group development, you can help your group push past challenges and become a high-performing unit. The storming stage of team development is a time for team members’ ideas are considered and in competition. Individuals will try new ideas and push for power and position in the team.

  • The real personalities of the team won’t be revealed until later; in the beginning, getting along with the rest of the team members is of primary importance.
  • Simply, the adjourning stage refers to the ending of the group work but it is also confusing.
  • She told me that we must do our best to name the problems and address them properly — especially at this point, where we risk getting stuck in this stage.
  • What if we told you that the way a team develops is similar to how humans evolve through different life stages?
  • They also need to streamline competition and ensure the projects they’re handling stay on track.

A high-functioning team does not happen effortlessly during the performance stage. The team members need to go through the forming, storming, and norming stage before getting to that level. Putting a group of talented people together does not guarantee success too. As new tasks emerge, the team may start having conflicts or disagreements again. But because the team has experience dealing with conflicts before, all of you will be better at managing them this time. Let’s discuss Tuckman’s 5 stages (forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning) of group development in detail.

Stages of Team Development, According to Tuckman

Conflicts are easier to handle, as people exchange feedback and ask for help. Typically, people have different expectations about work, and that will inevitably lead to conflicts and disputes, once they find out what it’s really like to work in a particular group. To grow from this stage, team members need to build their collaborative ability. They need to learn how each individual team member operates and become skilled in coordinating their activities. Team roles are established as well as ground rules for how the team operates (i.e. how things are done around here). “Team developmental interventions are key mechanisms that may be used to facilitate team effectiveness.” – Raymond Noe, author of Employee Training and Development.

The ideal is that they will not feel that they are being judged, and will therefore share their opinions and views. During this stage, teammates are excited to join the team and eager to begin new tasks and projects. At stage one, employees have high expectations for themselves and their colleagues. They are driven to succeed, which may cause some anxiety as they get to know their peers and settle into the team’s culture. Employees at this stage are curious and may outwardly showcase their enthusiasm and ask plenty of questions. As individuals become acclimated to their new environment, leaders should work to create a clear team structure so everyone has a good understanding of their roles.

Who invented Tuckman’s Team & Group Development Model?

The RACI matrix is a tool that helps to define and assign the roles and responsibilities of each team member for each task or activity. RACI stands for Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, and Informed. Informed means the person who needs to know the status or outcome. By using the RACI matrix, you can ensure that each team member knows what they are expected to do, who they need to work with, and who they need to report to.

stages of group and team development

This is a stage when dominant members of the group start to emerge. And while they feel confident, some other team members may want to stay in their comfort zone, preferring not to be confrontational or even express their thoughts. This is the stage where the team begins to function as a cohesive unit, no longer focused on individual goals. Team members https://www.globalcloudteam.com/ have learned how to express their opinions in a respectful way, communicate displeasure or disapproval in a productive manner, and resolve conflict quickly and efficiently. This is the where team members begin to but heads as they have different opinions regarding the project and compete with one another for status and for acceptance of their ideas.

What is the Tuckman model?

Members care about each other, thus creating a unique team identity. Any arguments, disagreements, disputes, and the like will be channeled toward making the team stronger. Finally, performing teams utilize their established communication protocols and action plans. For teams to move from the storming stage the norming stage they typically do the following tasks. Many dysfunctional team behaviors develop at this stage, such as lack of trust, fear of conflict, and absence of accountability.

The Coaching Tools Company is an official ICF Business Solutions Partner. The team must come together to decide how to move forwards and solve the inevitable challenges and misunderstandings that come out as the task progresses. Being a team leader doesn’t mean that you are the only person who should always take the lead during meetings or discussions. If you try to accomplish everything on your own, you will experience burnout. Every team should have a leader who is responsible for leading and guiding meetings. They are in charge of making sure everyone is motivated and working efficiently toward a common goal.

The Five Stages of Team Development: What Stage Is Your Group In?

The forming → storming → norming → performing model of group development was first proposed by psychological researcher Bruce Tuckman in 1965. The stages of group development in organizational behavior and management comprise the theory of team development. In other words, it’s a group-forming model that consists of 5 distinct phases.