Corticosterone is the main glucocorticoid involved in the regulation of stress responses in rodents (Smith and Vale 2006). In a clinical case study reviewed in this issue, Trevejo-Nunez and colleagues report on systemic and organ-specific immune pathologies often seen in chronic drinkers. In such patients, alcohol impairs mucosal immunity in the gut and lower respiratory system. This impairment can lead to sepsis and pneumonia and also increases the incidence and extent of postoperative complications, including delay in wound closure.
- The canonical NF-κB pathway is responsive to numerous different receptors such as TLR4, IL-1, TNFR, and T-cell receptors .
- In addition, antigen presenting cells convert vitamin D to 1,25(OH)2VD3, a physiologically active form of vitamin D that is highly concentrated in lymphoid tissues (Mora, Iwata et al. 2008) where it can modulate function of T and B cells which express vitamin D receptors.
- An antigen-specific T-cell response is initiated by interactions between antigen presenting cells (such as DCs) and naïve T cells and is optimized by engagement of co-stimulatory molecules and cytokines for antigen-specific T-cell activation (Mogensen 2009; Newton and Dixit 2012).
- The cell-mediated arm of the innate immunity is orchestrated primarily by granulocytes, monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, and natural killer (NK) cells.
- We will explore both a shared genetic basis as reflected by genetic correlation analysis and a causal relationship as reflected by MR analysis.
- Importantly, it adds another dimension to alcohol’s modulation of immunity, because the observed effects may be exclusive to the investigated location.
Weekly intimacy seems to help boost your immune system compared to those who have it less often. Couples who had sex more than twice a week had lower levels of IgA than those who had no sex at all. There is some evidence that sorrow, especially if lasts a long time, can depress your body’s immunity. The effect can linger for 6 months, but may go on longer if your grief is deep or doesn’t ease. Talk to your doctor or a mental health professional if you need help with a loss or traumatic event.
Alcohol, HIV, and the Mucosal Immune System
The subsequent increased gut permeability enables the translocation of viable bacteria and their metabolites, toxins, and further DAMPs and PAMPs from intraintestinal lumen into extrainestinal space, reaching the liver by circulation, where it contributes to development of alcoholic liver disease [211,212]. Interestingly, chronic alcohol abuse causes leaky gut-dependent malabsorption in the small intestine that is comparable with untreated celiac does alcohol suppress immune system disease . Further, despite the increased intestinal permeability, bacterial overgrowth and compositional disbalance has been described. Patients with chronic alcohol overconsumption show lowered counts of protective gastrointestinal bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Faecalibacterium, or Bacteroidetes, whereby the pathogenic bacterial families such as Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, and Streptococcaceae were overrepresented .
In the lungs, for example, alcohol damages the immune cells and fine hairs that have the important job of clearing pathogens out of our airway. That said, it’s clear that happy microbes are essential for proper digestion, immune function and intestinal health. And as scientists begin to explore how drinking may influence your gut, they’re learning that overdoing it could have some unhappy consequences.
Alcohol consumption and infection
Clearly, researchers need to conduct more directed studies to further define the specific alcohol-induced changes that alter innate defenses of the mucosal environments and that lead to an increased risk for HIV infection. As the numbers of HIV-infected persons continues to rise, it will become increasingly important to understand how chronic alcohol abuse affects genital virus expression and thus the risk of transmission. Additionally, the effects of alcohol on the genital microenvironment are important considerations in the development of pre-exposure prophylactic approaches. Alcohol-induced changes in microbial flora of the gut and vaginal compartments as well as changes to the epithelial barrier and innate defenses may alter the efficacy of antiviral approaches. Alcohol can modulate the activities of all of these cell populations by affecting the frequency, survival, and function of most of these cells, thereby interfering with pivotal immune responses.
HIV disease and alcohol independently influence the human immune system, so it stands to reason that, together, their influence may be additive. Here, we review the evidence that alcohol can exacerbate HIV’s influence on the immune system, thereby affecting disease progression and transmission. We focus particularly on alcohol’s effect on the mucosal immune system in the tissues of the gastrointestinal tract, the genital tract and the lungs, all of which play a role in transmission and progression of HIV disease.
How Alcohol Can Affect Your Immune System
But just like a muscle, the immune system can become weak and fail to protect you against infection as well. Heavy alcohol use weakens the immune system, and a weak immune system makes it easier to get sick. However, there are signs that you can look for if you are concerned that your drinking might be affecting your immunity.